"Group buying" is strong, and the drug price "squeezes water"! Expansion of national centralized drug procurement pilot

  Pharmacists in the outpatient pharmacy of Shanghai Chest Hospital distribute medicines at the medicine collection window. Xinhua News Agency reporter Liu Yingshe

  The nationwide "group purchase" of drugs has reduced the price of drugs a lot.

  A few days ago, the state organized a pilot project of centralized drug procurement and use (hereinafter referred to as the "4+7" pilot project) to expand the scope and announce the successful results. Compared with the lowest purchase price in 2018 in the expanded area, the average price of drugs to be selected dropped by 59%; Compared with the selected price in the "4+7" pilot area, the selected drug price dropped by 25% on average.

  Drug prices are related to people’s livelihood and affect people’s hearts. The expansion of the "4+7" pilot project is expected to bring benefits to patients in more areas and lay the foundation for a wider range of "group buying". Under the background of frequent policy "combination boxing" and upgrading generic drugs, drug prices are expected to enter a new round of decline.

  Low bid price and high enthusiasm of foreign companies.

  Where did the "expansion" come from? In fact, this centralized procurement is based on the pilot projects in 11 cities including Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai and Guangzhou in 2018. In order to expand the effect of the reform, except the above 11 cities and Hebei and Fujian provinces, the other 25 provinces and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps participated in the expansion. This also means that the pilot program of centralized drug procurement and use organized by the state has been extended to the whole country.

  77 companies participated in the bidding, and 25 drugs were squeezed out again — — After fierce competition, the price of the drugs to be selected has bottomed out again on the basis of the "4+7" pilot project, which is not higher than the price of the last selection.

  For example, after bidding, the single price of amlodipine besylate tablets has dropped to less than 7 cents; For entecavir used to treat hepatitis B, the winning bid price of the "4+7" pilot was 0.62 yuan/tablet, which was 95% lower than that in 2017. After expanding the bidding, the lowest winning bid price was reduced to 0.182 yuan/tablet, a drop of up to 70%.

  Why can centrally purchased drugs break through the "floor price"? Experts said that compared with the previous "4+7" pilot, the scope of this centralized procurement is wider. On the basis of national heavy volume, enterprises have sufficient confidence in "exchanging price for quantity". With the advancement of medical reform and the change of medical insurance payment methods, the era of maintaining high drug prices for a long time has changed.

  Bao Haizhong, vice president of Qilu Pharmaceutical Group, said that although the winning bid price has been significantly reduced, the company has retained a reasonable profit margin. The marketing cost of domestic pharmaceutical market is relatively high, and it is the general trend to return to a relatively reasonable level, and price reduction is a normal process.

  It is worth noting that in this procurement, many foreign-funded original drug research enterprises and generic drug companies have also joined the competition, and the quotations of some original drug research enterprises are even lower than those of generic drugs. Well-known pharmaceutical companies, such as AstraZeneca, Sanofi, Lilly and Merck, all made some gains in the bidding.

  In addition, the Indian generic drugs that made their debut have also entered the list of candidates — — Olanzapine tablets, a psychotropic drug produced by Dr. Reddy’s laboratory in India, was successfully shortlisted at the price of 123.8 yuan/box, and will be supplied to the markets of 8 provinces and cities such as Shanxi and Zhejiang in the future.

  Regarding the positive attitude of pharmaceutical companies, Fu Hongpeng, a researcher at National Health Commission Health Development Research Center, said that the mode of purchasing with quantity will not only bring economic benefits to pharmaceutical companies, but also create more "intangible benefits". The attraction of centralized procurement and large volume will also attract more foreign pharmaceutical companies to participate.

  "Group purchase" effect is strong, and the supply of drugs is stable

  With the expansion of the pilot, the "group purchase" effect of centralized drug procurement organized by the state has once again appeared.

  Due to the combination of quantity procurement and recruitment, the centralized procurement of drugs organized by the state is conducive to truly exerting the role of the market in allocating resources, reducing unreasonable expenses in circulation, and thus greatly reducing drug prices.

  The "4+7" pilot launched last year reduced the average price of 25 selected drugs by 52%. The data shows that by the end of August this year, the purchase volume of selected drugs has reached 1.7 billion tablets, and the burden of drug expenses for patients has been reduced, especially for patients with chronic diseases and serious illnesses. At the same time, people in non-pilot areas hope to expand the scope of the pilot and use related drugs with high quality and low price as soon as possible.

  Compared with the "4+7" pilot project, in order to ensure the supply of selected drugs, the expansion of this pilot project allows more than one variety to win the bid and expand the supply sources of drugs. For varieties with less than three selected enterprises, the proportion of agreed purchases is appropriately reduced to reduce the supply risk. At the same time, the production enterprises are required to supply enough according to the purchase agreement to ensure stable supply.

  Shi Luwen, a professor at Peking University College of Pharmacy and director of the International Research Center for Pharmaceutical Management in Peking University, said that centralized procurement and use expansion can continue to expand the economic effect of quantity procurement, use market mechanism to promote drugs to return to a reasonable market price, allow more patients to use high-quality and low-cost drugs, and further improve people’s access to drugs.

  Ensure the price reduction and quality improvement of drugs

  The rapid implementation of the pilot expansion responded to the voice of the broad masses looking forward to using low-priced drugs as soon as possible. However, people still have many concerns about the supply and quality of drugs.

  First, when can patients from all over the world enjoy the selected drugs with high quality and low price?

  According to reports, in the next step, all localities will focus on the implementation of the selected results to ensure that patients can use low-priced drugs before the end of the year. According to the relevant person in charge of the pilot office, ensuring that the selected drugs enter the hospital and get priority use is the key to the success or failure of the pilot expansion. The medical security department will, together with the health department, improve the incentive and restraint mechanism of public hospitals, and escort the successful results.

  Second, how to ensure that the selected drugs can reduce the price and improve the quality?

  Experts believe that 25 kinds of drugs in the "4+7" pilot project have been tested for a period of time, and there is no problem in clinical substitution or drug quality and supply guarantee.

  The person in charge of the pilot office said that the relevant departments will take effective measures to ensure the quality of the selected drugs, urge the selected enterprises to implement the main responsibility of drug quality and safety, strengthen the quality supervision of the production, circulation and use of the selected drugs, increase the frequency of sampling inspection, strengthen the monitoring of adverse reactions, and increase the accountability of illegal enterprises.

  Third, when will more varieties of drugs join the pilot scope?

  Experts said that the 25 varieties purchased in the "4+7" pilot are only limited varieties in clinical use at present. In addition to the 25 varieties, there must be more room for price reduction and efficiency improvement in the future.

  According to Shi Luwen’s analysis, the expansion of the region on the basis of the original 25 varieties can test whether the pilot policy can play a good role in the government and the market and truly realize the "quantity-price linkage". After clarifying the relevant issues, we can consider further expanding the variety range. At the same time, he stressed that the drugs selected by centralized procurement must be drugs with high clinical acceptance, wide population or high social concern, and can be used well in most medical institutions.

  Guide pharmaceutical companies to innovate and upgrade.

  In this pilot expansion, "passing the consistency evaluation" is still regarded as the shortlisted standard for generic drugs, so as to promote enterprises to speed up the consistency evaluation and guide the upgrading of product structure. Judging from the results of quasi-selection, the effect of generic drugs replacing the original drugs is obvious.

  The person in charge of the pilot office said that after the expansion of the pilot, the procurement of 25 drugs with quantity will cover the whole country, and the requirements for product quality, capacity supply and cost control of enterprises will be higher, and enterprises will face greater competitive pressure, which will help promote the optimization and restructuring of the industry, gradually change the situation of small scale and low quality of the industry, and promote the scale, intensification and modernization of the industry.

  A person in charge of a pharmaceutical company said that ordinary generic drugs will enter the era of low profit. With the implementation of the "4+7" pilot and other related policies, ordinary generic drugs without barriers will gradually return to the profit level of manufacturing. This will promote the survival of the fittest of pharmaceutical enterprises and encourage more enterprises to tap the market potential and embark on the road of innovation and development.

  At the same time of pilot expansion, a policy document has recently attracted attention — — The list of the first batch of encouraged generic drugs was officially released, and 33 kinds of drugs that are clinically necessary, effective and in short supply were among them.

  Generic drugs are an important part of the global pharmaceutical market, and the future prospects of the industry are very broad. Experts said that the publication of this catalogue pointed out the development direction for domestic pharmaceutical companies. Whoever can lead Mr. Wang to produce generic drugs with stable quality and reliable curative effect will occupy the current market.

A number of measures have been introduced from the central government to various places to activate the consumption potential of key areas such as automobiles.

  Recently, measures have been introduced from the central government to various localities to promote consumption in key areas. Since the beginning of this year, the State Council and many departments have successively introduced measures to stimulate consumption, such as cars going to the countryside and exchanging old ones for new ones, which have obviously promoted the recovery of the overall consumer market. For example, the sales of automobile products boosted the total retail sales of consumer goods by about 1.1 percentage points in October. A few days ago, the the State Council executive meeting put forward "promoting the transformation of automobile purchase restriction to guided use", and once again added more weight to the favorable policies for automobile consumption.

  Recently, local governments have successively issued new measures, which opened the curtain of promoting consumption at the end of the year. The the State Council executive meeting held a few days ago pointed out that it is necessary to firmly implement the strategy of expanding domestic demand, further promote mass consumption and key consumption, and release the rural consumption potential.

  At present, the recovery of consumption continues to increase, and recently, a number of measures to promote consumption in key areas have been introduced from the central government to various places. Experts pointed out that it is necessary to implement relevant consumption policies, promote the sustained, stable recovery and development of consumption, and also create new demand with high-quality supply, and strive to consolidate the foundation of domestic demand, especially the upgrading of consumption.

  Upgrade consumption accelerates recovery.

  Consumption is the main engine of economic growth. Since the beginning of this year, in the face of the adverse impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on consumption, various regions and departments have taken active actions and launched a series of policies to boost consumption, which has accelerated the recovery of consumption. Recently, the National Development and Reform Commission, together with relevant departments, issued the Work Plan for Expanding Domestic Demand and Promoting Consumption in the Near Future, and put forward 19 practical measures to expand domestic demand and promote consumption, so as to "loosen" the demand potential and "refuel" the economic cycle.

  According to the latest data released by the National Bureau of Statistics, while the consumption of essential consumer goods is growing steadily, the consumption of upgrading and bulk commodities is picking up obviously. In October, the retail sales of cosmetics, gold, silver and jewelry increased by 18.3% and 16.7% respectively, and the growth rate was 4.6 and 3.6 percentage points higher than that in September.

  Sharla Cheung, a statistician of the Department of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation of the National Bureau of Statistics, said that with the sustained and stable recovery of the national economy, residents’ confidence in consumption has increased, and the demand for car replacement has been continuously released, especially with the promotion of automobile consumption policies, the automobile market sales have obviously picked up. In October this year, the retail sales of automobile products of units above designated size increased by 12.0% year-on-year, and the growth rate was 0.8 percentage points faster than that of September, maintaining double-digit growth for four consecutive months. The sales of automobile products boosted the total retail sales of social consumer goods by about 1.1 percentage points in October.

  The dividend of Hainan’s tax exemption policy for outlying islands is also accelerating. According to customs statistics, from July 1 to October 31, Haikou Customs supervised the tax-free sales of outlying islands for four months, with a year-on-year increase of 214.1%. The top three commodities in sales amount were cosmetics, watches and jewelry, which increased by 164.5%, 353.8% and 404.7% respectively. The total sales amount of the top three commodities accounted for 72.8% of the total tax-free sales of outlying islands in the same period.

  "There are two main reasons for the rapid growth of consumption of upgraded goods." Zhao Ping, vice president of the Research Institute of the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, believes that the first is that the income level of residents continues to increase. In the first three quarters of this year, the actual growth rate of per capita disposable income of Chinese residents turned from negative to positive, which laid a solid material foundation for the recovery of consumption. Secondly, with the orderly resumption of work and production, the supply capacity has been continuously improved, especially the application of a new generation of information technology has created more new formats and new models, which further stimulated the release of consumption potential.

  Make efforts to stabilize consumption in key areas

  At present, physical consumption such as housing, transportation and so on is still the "big head" of residents’ consumption. Since the beginning of this year, a series of policies have been introduced from the central government to the local government to stabilize and promote mass consumption such as automobiles.

  In terms of "travel", in March, the the State Council executive meeting identified three major measures to promote automobile consumption; In April, 11 departments jointly issued the Notice on Several Measures to Stabilize and Expand Automobile Consumption; In July, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and other departments jointly issued the Notice on Launching the Activities of New Energy Vehicles Going to the Countryside. The the State Council executive meeting held on November 18th once again increased the favorable policies for automobile consumption. The meeting proposed to encourage all localities to adjust and optimize the purchase restriction measures and increase the number plate indicators. We will carry out a new round of vehicles going to the countryside and replacing them with old ones, encourage qualified areas to buy trucks of 3.5 tons or less and passenger cars of 1.6 liters or less for rural residents, and subsidize residents to eliminate vehicles with emission standards of national III or below and buy new ones. Strengthen the construction of parking lots, charging piles and other facilities.

  "Cars going to the countryside and exchanging old ones for new ones are effective measures to stimulate automobile consumption, which is also in line with the trend of sinking consumption and upgrading consumption." Zhao Ping said.

  From the local level, Beijing, Hubei, Chongqing, Jiangsu, Gansu, Jilin, Xinjiang, Hainan and other provinces have introduced relevant policies and measures to stabilize and expand automobile consumption, which promote automobile consumption from the aspects of implementing the subsidy policy for the purchase of new energy vehicles, accelerating the elimination of scrapped old diesel trucks, smoothing the circulation and trading of used cars, and making good use of automobile consumption finance.

  Zhao Ping said that if the policy implementation can produce the expected results, according to previous data, the automobile consumption promotion policy is expected to drive the total retail sales of social consumer goods to increase by about 1 percentage point, which will obviously lead to the recovery of the overall consumer market.

  In terms of "housing", data from relevant industry associations show that there are hundreds of millions of over-aged household appliances in China that need to be updated urgently. The executive meeting in the State Council proposed to promote home improvement consumption of household appliances and furniture. Encourage qualified areas to subsidize the elimination of old household appliances and furniture and the purchase of green smart household appliances and environmentally friendly furniture.

  "Consumption such as automobiles and household appliances accounts for a large proportion of residents’ consumption expenditure, and increasing stimulus to bulk consumption can release huge consumption potential." Professor Pan Helin, Executive Dean of the Digital Economy Research Institute of Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, said that the consumer demand of residents has not disappeared, and the epidemic has only temporarily suppressed the release of demand. The introduction of encouraging policies for bulk consumption will help to stimulate residents’ consumption enthusiasm, restore consumption vitality, and then play a role in stabilizing consumption.

  Pan Helin believes that mass consumption also has a strong industrial chain driving role. Promoting large-scale consumption can stimulate the vitality of relevant industrial chains, thereby further increasing the wage income of residents and enhancing their spending power.

  In promoting the sustained growth of consumption of bulk commodities and services, Meng Wei, spokesperson of the National Development and Reform Commission, said earlier that it would promote the transformation and upgrading of automobile and household appliances consumption, promote the transformation of automobile purchase restriction to guided use, encourage local governments to introduce policies to promote the replacement of old cars, promote the construction of parking lots and roadside parking facilities in major public buildings, improve the recycling and treatment system of used household appliances, support the trade-in activities of household appliances, and promote the renewal and consumption of household appliances. Actively develop housing rental consumption to meet the housing needs of residents.

  Consumption potential needs to be continuously tapped.

  The executive meeting of the State Council proposed to boost catering consumption and promote rural consumption by expanding county and township consumption. Experts pointed out that to promote offline consumption such as catering and tap the potential of the rural consumer market, it is necessary to speed up the filling of the soft and hard shortcomings of consumption, thus further consolidating the momentum of consumption recovery.

  At present, offline consumption is gradually improving. In October, catering revenue increased by 0.8% year-on-year, and the growth rate turned positive for the first time in the year. In the first 10 months, the retail sales of supermarkets above designated size increased by 3%, while the decline of retail sales of department stores and specialty store was obviously narrowed.

  "Overall, the production capacity of offline consumer companies is recovering and their confidence is being rebuilt. With the normalization of domestic epidemic prevention and control, the flow of offline consumption has been guaranteed, and there will be many hot consumption periods such as New Year’s Day and Spring Festival next year. Coupled with a series of measures to promote consumption, the recovery of offline consumption is expected to continue. " Pan helin thinks.

  In October, the growth rate of retail sales of rural consumer goods was 0.9 percentage points higher than that of cities and towns, and the rural market recovered better than that of cities and towns. "The rural population accounts for nearly 40%. From the perspective of consumers, it is a huge market and a new growth point of domestic demand. The growth rate of rural e-commerce is also faster than that of cities and towns, which is a potential market for new formats. " Zhao Ping said.

  In view of the "blocking point" of rural consumption, Meng Wei said that he would vigorously improve the comprehensive level of e-commerce and express delivery in rural areas and the modernization level of agricultural products circulation, accelerate the improvement of e-commerce service system and express logistics distribution system at county, township and village levels, promote the branding, standardization, digitalization and industrialization transformation of rural products and services, guide modern services to extend to rural areas, accelerate the reinforcement of weak links in rural consumption, and effectively boost rural consumption.

  "Unlike cities, there are no large business districts in rural areas. It is more important to stimulate the vitality of rural consumption, strengthen infrastructure such as logistics, and build e-commerce terminal sites." Pan Helin believes that it is also an important way to promote consumption by further strengthening the activities of automobiles and home appliances to the countryside and introducing high-quality goods to the countryside. In addition, efforts should be made to promote the export of agricultural products and encourage two-way circulation between urban and rural areas. By breaking the barriers of resource flow, per capita disposable income in rural areas will be increased, and rural consumption capacity will be enhanced.

Sports history-the birth of football: a football teenager’s foul.

In the English dictionary, Rugby has two meanings: one is football; The second is the place name. rugby, a small town in Warwickshire, England, is the hometown of rugby. 198 years ago, on the lawn of Rugby College, a 16-year-old football boy ran with the ball in his arm, which was an obvious foul, but it finally became a sport. This boy is wilhelm weber Webbellis.
Portrait of wilhelm weber EllisAn ordinary moment of gloryTo discuss the origin of rugby, we should start with the life of wilhelm weber Ellis.
William’s life is both plain and legendary. On November 24th, 1806, he was born in Salford, Lancashire, England. He was the son of a soldier, and his father, James Ellis, was a cornet player in the Dragon Riding Team. By 1809 at the latest, James had been promoted to lieutenant and was stationed in Portugal with the troops. In 1804, James Ellis married wilhelm weber’s daughter Anne Webb in Exeter, England. In 1812, when William was only 6 years old, his father was killed in the Spanish War of Independence, and Anne received a pension of 30 pounds from the army. This pension became the basis of William’s attachment to football.
After her father died, Anne, who lost her financial resources, decided to move to rugby with her family. At that time, it was a small town with only a few thousand people, and the only thing that made the town famous in China was Rugby College. Rugby College was founded in 1567 as a grammar school. In the 1820s and 1930s, Rugby College, under the leadership of its president, Thomas Arnold, has become a famous public school in England. The public school here is different from its literal meaning, and it promotes elite-oriented secondary education. Rugby College enrolls boys within 10 miles of Fiona Fang with the town clock as the center. In 1816, 10-year-old William began his nine-year study here. During his study, William gave the impression of being "a good student and cricketer". However, some people have noticed that William is not a disciplined cricketer because "he always tends to gain an advantage through unfair cheating". This evaluation was quickly confirmed in an accident.
One day in 1823, in a fierce football match, William, who was thin, failed to get the ball several times. In desperation, he actually picked up the football and ran to the opponent’s goal. When the opponent stopped him, he ignored it and rushed straight ahead. For the established football rules at that time, you can kick the ball with your feet or even handball, but you can’t run with the ball in the game, which will be regarded as cheating. However, at that time, this foul did not attract much attention. This is because in the early 19th century, there were many student football clubs in rugby, with hundreds of large clubs and only a dozen small ones. Because the rules of modern football have not been determined, many rules were agreed temporarily before the game, and the use of hands was not absolutely prohibited during the game, William’s foul was not so eccentric.
The portrait of the game in 1823, the act of running with the ball, was only an episode in the game and did not have any influence on William’s life track. After studying in rugby for nine years, William entered Brecci North College of Oxford University (former British Prime Minister David Cameron also graduated from this college), where he participated in cricket matches between Oxford and Cambridge. In 1829, he got a bachelor’s degree, and in 1831, he got a master’s degree in literature at Oxford. Since then, he has become an evangelical priest, who went to the front to preach during the Crimean War. In 1872, at the age of 65, William died in Montone, southern France. He never married and had no children. He donated 9,000 pounds to the church, which was a huge sum at that time.If it weren’t for the title of inventor of rugby, William’s life would be unremarkable. If it weren’t for people’s exploration and pursuit later, that accidental running with the ball would be just an episode, and it would soon be lost in the long bells of the small town church.
"Collusion" between Antique Collectors and Students
As mentioned above, the invention of football happened by accident, and even the parties may not realize it. So, by what historical chance, wilhelm weber Ellis was finally established as the inventor of rugby? How did rugby become an independent sport?
The status of William as an inventor was first recorded by Mathew Bloxam, a local antique collector. In October, 1876, he wrote an article for the first time in the magazine Meteor of Rugby School. He learned from an unnamed source that "a boy who received a scholarship in this town, his name was wilhelm weber Ellis, and he ran forward with the ball in a game in 1824".
However, this account is too brief, and it also raises questions about William’s inventor. Maybe it’s to prove that what you said is true. On December 22, 1880, Matthew Brockham published an article in Meteor again, which was much more detailed than the first article. He wrote:
This boy named wilhelm weber Ellis is a scholarship kid in the town. In the football match in 1823, he grabbed the football and put it under his arm. In the football rules at that time, he should kick the ball back to the backcourt as much as possible and try not to separate it from the ball. Because the opponent can only go forward to where he catches the ball, and can’t go forward unless he kicks the ball forward or passes it to other players to kick it. In the situation at that time, most successful attacks were scored in this way. But at that time, at the moment when the ball hit the ground, the opponent might be eager to attack, which made Ellis ignore the rules for the first time. Instead of retreating as required by the rules, he grabbed the ball with his hand and rushed forward. Although I don’t know what the final result is, I don’t know what happened after this famous foul, and I don’t know when it became a common rule.
Soon after the publication of these two articles, it caused doubts from the outside world, which have not been completely eliminated until today. The doubts about William’s inventor of "rugby" mainly focus on three points: First, the time of the game. In an article in 1876, Matthew said the time of the competition was 1824, and four years later, he changed the time point to 1823, because William was not in school in 1824. This serious injury greatly reduced the reliability of Matthew’s account. The second is about the time of publication. When Matthew’s argument was published, William had died for four years, and there was no evidence from other parties in the argument, only the so-called "unnamed channel". The third is the content of the discussion. As long as we compare the two expositions in 1876 and 1880, we will find that the second one is much more detailed than the first one, which is quite a bit suspicious of the ancient school’s "making history by layers". Later expositions are to prove that the above descriptions are not empty, but it is difficult to verify whether they are true or false.
To this end, in 1895, the local old rugby association decided to investigate the origin of the sport, but the investigation team has been suffering from "unable to obtain first-hand evidence of the incident." Subsequently, a pair of brothers named Harris once testified to the investigation team that William did "gain an unfair advantage" in the football match, but whether this was the origin of rugby was not conclusive.
Compared with the origin of disagreement, William’s practice seems to be more helpful for rugby to become an independent sport. In August 1845, three students of Rugby College, Walter Shere, William Arnold and Friedlich Hutsis, got together and formulated the first rugby rules carefully. "The collision before kick-off, after the ball touches the ground or when the player’s body is empty is illegal; When a player is injured, the game must be stopped so that the injured can receive treatment … "In this rule, there are also modern rugby terms such as pre-beat, pre-pass and offside. Through the terms of these rules, we can feel the "Fair play" of the British who advocate fair competition, and we can also read out the respect for the participants. This respect is reflected in two aspects, on the one hand, it is to protect the physical safety of the contestants, on the other hand, it is to respect the sportsmanship.
This rule is printed into a pocket-sized booklet, which is all the rage on campus. Once students encounter differences in the competition, they will stop the competition and take out the rules from their backpacks to find a solution. After the rules were determined, rugby soon spread in elite schools such as Harrow and Eton, and these students brought it to universities such as Oxford and Cambridge, followed by the birth of a number of rugby clubs. On January 26th, 1871, the English Rugby League was founded in London, with 21 clubs participating. On March 27th of the same year, the world’s first international rugby match was held in Edinburgh, against England and Scotland.
The vigorous development of rugby makes rugby proud. In 1895, a stone tablet was erected in Rugby College, which read: "I hereby commemorate wilhelm weber Ellis, who ignored the football rules at that time and ran with the ball for the first time, thus drawing a clear line between football and rugby."
A memorial tablet in Rugby College about William’s invention of rugby. At this time, wilhelm weber Ellis has been dead for 23 years. The inventor didn’t know that with the help of an antique collector and classmate, rugby became a formal sport, and he was crowned as the inventor of rugby.Gentlemen’s games played by hooligans and hooligans’ games played by gentlemen.
No matter whether local antique collectors diligently research past anecdotes or Rugby college students painstakingly put the established rules into words, all they do is to distinguish rugby from football. From this perspective, rugby is not "invented", but is born out of football.
Interestingly, in the mid-19th century, when the children of Rugby College were carefully drafting the rules of rugby, football gradually entered a mature stage. In 1848, the Cambridge Rules, the first written rule of football, was born, which defined for the first time the number of participants in a football match and the form of football goals, that is, the ball needs to cross the space between or above the goalposts, no matter how high it is, as long as it is not thrown, thrown or hit by hands, it is counted as a point. In addition, the players are not allowed to wear any equipment that may threaten the lives of others. On October 26th, 1853, the Football Association held its first plenary session in a pub in London. At the meeting, Hebrew Cobo Morey, the first secretary-general, read out the Charter of Modern Football, which stipulated: "It is strictly forbidden to stumble and kick people, and all players are not allowed to catch or push the ball with their hands." These two texts define the restrictions on the use of hands in football and draw the boundaries between football and rugby.
Not only in terms of rules, football and football began to "cut", but also in terms of participants and spectators, football and football began to go their separate ways. From the middle and late 19th century, a proverb gradually spread in British society, "Football is a gentleman’s game played by hooligans; Rugby is a rogue game played by gentlemen. " This proverb vividly illustrates the personality differences between the two sports. Why is there such a personality difference between football and rugby, and what impact will this personality difference have on their development? This is also a topic worthy of elaboration.
In fact, this is still rooted in the origin of these two sports. Since its birth, football has found a bosom friend in the northern part of England where the industrial revolution sprouted. Its fans and participants are industrial workers, and they gradually turn playing football into a profession. Today, Manchester and Liverpool, located in the north of England, are traditional football towns with strong sports foundation. In rugby and other southern regions, because football originated from the campus, most of the participants are students. As an old-fashioned prestigious school, rugby’s graduates often go to prestigious schools like Oxford and Cambridge for further study, which naturally brings this sport to the ivory tower. Because the participants are mainly students, rugby has been defined as a "non-professional sport" since its birth, and most fans just rely on interest and will not earn a penny from this sport. This unprofessional watershed retains the gentleman’s reserve, but limits the development space of this sport. Money and fans flock to football, while rugby gradually declines. Even in his hometown of rugby, except for the monuments and towering goals on campus, it is hard to find traces of football.
Rugby College’s erected rugby gate. Fortunately, rugby is "doomed". Since the middle and late 19th century, with the pace of colonial expansion of the British Empire, rugby has traveled across the ocean, rapidly spreading in the United States, Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and other countries, and has become a hot project. With the internationalization of this sport, it has also begun to become attached to the modern Olympic movement. In 1883, Pierre De Coubertin, the father of the modern Olympic Movement, began to pay attention to school physical education in Britain. He believed that the failure of France in the Franco-Prussian War was partly due to the weak school physical education, in which England was far ahead. After visiting many schools in England, Coubertin noticed that rugby has become a popular sport in English campuses. Driven by it, in 1900, at the second Olympic Games, rugby was listed as an official event. With Coubertin’s resignation in 1925, his successor, Henri de Baye-latour, was not interested in the team events in the Olympic Games, so rugby was disqualified from the Olympic events. On October 9, 2009, at the plenary session of the International Olympic Committee held in Singapore, rugby sevens was confirmed as the official event of the 2016 Olympic Games. Although the number of participants, rules and forms are different from the traditional 15-a-side rugby, it can still be regarded as the return of rugby games in the Olympic Games.Despite the ups and downs in the Olympic Games, rugby has always been the darling of Commonwealth countries. In 1987, Australia and New Zealand jointly hosted the first Rugby World Cup, which has been held for nine consecutive times. Among them, in the 3rd Rugby World Cup held in South Africa, the South African springbok team, which was dominated by whites, went out as the national team and finally won the championship, which also became a landmark event of racial reconciliation in the rainbow country. Outside the Commonwealth countries, rugby has gradually evolved into a more intense and professional American football in North America, and the National Football League (NFL) plays an important role in the professional sports map of the United States. The Super Bowl, the annual finals of the American Professional Football League, is usually held on the first Sunday of February every year, which is also called "Super Sunday" and enjoys the reputation of "American Spring Festival Evening".
The hustle and bustle of rugby seems to have nothing to do with the quiet town of rugby. But the statue of wilhelm weber Ellis outside Rugby College must have witnessed the ups and downs of this sport. This statue fixed him at the age of 16, holding a football in his left hand, flying his right foot and running on the grassy field.
Statue of wilhelm weber Ellis outside Rugby College (this article is from The Paper, please download the "The Paper" APP for more original information).
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